Category Archives: Reference

Cooking Equipment – Historical Images

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We have pots, fry pans, tools and the combination of items these are made out of. Below are images from both items and art that represent historical cooking items.

Figure 1 - Cooking pot from 1340 - 1440 London - Pottery (British Museum)

Figure 2 - Knives, about AD 1406; Sheath, about AD 1406-1410 (British Museum)

Figure 3 - Copper alloy cauldron with three feet. - 13th to 15th c (Museum of London, 2010)

Figure 4 - 15th c Ceramic pipkin, wheel thrown, lead glazed. (British Museum)

Figure 5- 1489 German - Die Geubert der Maria - Schwabischer Meister

Figure 6 - 1551 The camp of Charles V at Lauingen in the year 1546 - Camp Kitchen - Mattias Gerung

Figure 7 – 1570 - Bartolomeo Scappi - Opera

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What is in season when?

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Spring:

Carrots
Cherries (seasons starts some places at the end of spring)
Fava beans
Fennel
Garlic scapes/green garlic
Green onions/scallions
Greens (particularly in colder regions)
Leeks (end)
Lemons
Lettuce
Morels
Pea greens
Peas (garden, snap, snow, etc.)
Spinach
Turnips

Summer:

Apples (late summer)
Carrots
Chard
Cherries

Autumn:

Apples
Cabbage
Carrots
Fennel
Figs
Garlic
Grapes (early fall)
Leeks
Lettuce
Mushrooms (wild)
Onions
Parsnips
Pears
Pomegranates
Quinces
Shallots
Turnips

Winter:

Cabbage
Carrots (storage)
Fennel
Leeks
Lemons
Onions (storage)
Parsnips

What did stuff cost in 1438…

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PURCHASING POWER OF A LONDON CRAFTSMAN’S DAILY WAGE in 1438 – 1439: for Textiles, Foodstuffs, and Spices in terms of a master mason’s or master carpenter’s daily wage of 8d. [1]

 

 

 

COMMODITY

Price per Unit in d.

Unit

Quantity Purchased by Daily Wage of 8d

Quantity Purchased by Weekly Wage of 48d

No. of Days’ Wages to Buy 7 Yds

No. of Days’ Wages at 6d per day for Oxford

 

 

TEXTILES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Canvas

2

yard

4

24

1.75

2.33

 

Brabant Linen

6.4

yard

1.25

7.5

5.6

7.47

 

Flemish Linen

12.1

yard

0.661

3.967

10.59

14.12

 

English Worsted

3.5

yard

2.286

13.714

3.06

4.08

 

English Kersey: Dyed

17.9

yard

0.447

2.682

15.66

20.88

 

English Broadcloth: Dyed: average

25.4

yard

0.315

1.89

22.23

29.63

 

English Broadcloth: Dyed: highest

40

yard

0.2

1.2

35

46.67

 

Scarlet Broadcloth: average

144.2

yard

0.055

0.333

126.18

168.23

 

Scarlet Broadcloth: highest range

228

yard

0.035

0.211

199.5

266

 

Flemish Broadcloth (Ghent Dickedinnen)

65.158

yard

0.123

0.737

57.01

76.02

 

Silk: Velvet: average

181.08

yard

0.044

0.265

158.45

211.26

 

Silk: Velvet: highest range

279.96

yard

0.029

0.171

244.97

326.62

 

Silk: Damask

144

yard

0.056

0.333

126

168

 

Silk: Plain Satin

105

yard

0.076

0.457

91.88

122.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTHER COMMODITIES: Food and Fuel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Almonds

3

pound

2.667

16

0.38

0.5

 

Honey

2.5

pints

3.2

19.2

0.31

0.42

 

Milk

1

gallons

8

48

0.13

0.17

 

Butter

1

pints

8

48

0.13

0.17

 

Salt

0.5

pints

16

96

0.06

0.08

 

Eggs

0.157

number

51

306

0.02

0.03

 

Apples

0.08

number

100

600

0.01

0.01

 

Rye Flour

4

pound

2

12

0.5

0.67

 

Chickens

5

number

1.6

9.6

0.63

0.83

 

Capons

1.509

number

5.3

31.8

0.19

0.25

 

Rabbits

4

number

2

12

0.5

0.67

 

Sole (Fish)

2.182

number

3.667

22

0.27

0.36

 

Red Wine

5

gallons

1.6

9.6

0.63

0.83

 

Penny Ale (Beer)

0.748

gallons

10.7

64.2

0.09

0.12

 

Good-Quality Ale

1.778

gallons

4.5

27

0.22

0.3

 

Tallow Candles

1.333

number

6

36

0.17

0.22

 

Coal

0.748

bushels

10.7

64.2

0.09

0.12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SPICES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pepper

18.028

pound

0.444

2.663

2.25

3

 

Ginger

12

pound

0.667

4

1.5

2

 

Cinnamon

24.151

pound

0.331

1.988

3.02

4.03

 

Cloves

35.556

pound

0.225

1.35

4.44

5.93

 

Saffron

182.857

pound

0.044

0.263

22.86

30.48

 

Sugar

16

pound

0.5

3

2

2.67

 


[1] Dr. John Munro, Department of Economics, University of Toronto, Canada – November 2001

Richard II Feast – Ingredients List

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The Ingredient List For The Feast of Richard II

Shortly before mid-day, September 23, 1387, England’s King Richard II and his uncle, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, hosted a feast. Below is the list of the major items and the items served for the feast.

  • Xiiii oxen lying in salte (14 Salted Oxen)
  • IJ oxen ffreyssh (2 Fresh Oxen)
  • Vixx heds of shepe fresh (120 Sheep’s Heads
  • Vixx carcas of shepe fressh (120 Sheep carcasses)
  • Xij Bores (12 Boar)
  • Xiiij Calvys (14 Calves)
  • Cxl pigges (140 Pigs)
  • CCC maribones (300 Marrowbones)
  • Of larde and grece, ynogh (Enough Lard & Grease)
  • IIJ tod of salt veneson (84lb Of Salt Venison)
  • IIJ does of ffressh venison (3 Fresh Doe)
  • IIJ disson pullayn for Gely (60 Poultry for jelly)
  • Xjj dd to roste (144 poultry to roast)
  • C dd peions (1200 Pigeons)
  • Xjj dd partrych (144 Partridge)
  • Viij dd Rabettes (96 Rabbits)
  • X dosen Curlews (120 Curlew)
  • Xij dosen Brewes (144 Whimbrel)
  • Xij Cranes (12 Cranes)
  • Wild fowle ynogh (Enough Wildfowl)
  • VJxx galons melke (120 gallons of Milk)
  • Xij galons Creme (12 gallons of Cream)
  • Xl galons of Cruddes (40 gallons of Curd)
  • Iij bushels of Appelles (3 bushells of Apples)
  • Xj thousand eggs (11,000 Eggs)

The Poultry

  • L Swannes (50 Swan)
  • CCx gees (210 Geese)
  • L capons of hie grece (50 Fat Capons)
  • Viii dussen other capons (96 Other Capons)
  • Lx dd Hennes (720 Hens)
  • CC coppull Coyngges (400 Rabbits)
  • IIIJ Fesauntes (4 Pheasant)
  • V herons and Bitores (5 Heron & Bittern)
  • Vi kiddes (6 Goat)

The First Course

  • Veneson with Frumenty – Venison with a thick, sweet porridge of wheat
  • A pottage called viaundbruse – A Stew Of Soft Meat
  • Hedes of Bores – Boars Heads (traditional at nearly every feast)
  • Grete Flessh – Great Flesh (Roast Oxen)
  • Swannes roasted – Roast Swan
  • Pigges roasted – Roast Pigs
  • Crustarde lumbard in paste – Sweet Pastry Custards Of Wine, Dates & Honey
  • And a Sotelte – And A Subtlety

The Second Course

  • A pottage called Gele – A Stew called Jelly
  • A pottage de blandesore – A White Soup
  • Pigges Roasted – Roast Pigs
  • Cranes roasted – Roast Cranes
  • Fesauntes roasted – Roast Pheasants
  • Herons roasted – Roast Herons
  • Chekens endored – Chickens Glazed
  • Breme – Bream
  • Tartes – Tarts
  • Broke braune – Jellied Brawn Of A Deer
  • Conyngges roasted – Roast Rabbits
  • And a sotelte – And A Subtlety

The Third Course

  • Potage. Bruete of Almonds – Sweet Stew Of Almonds, Honey & Eggs
  • Stwde lumbarde – Sweet Syrup Of Honey, Dates & Wine
  • Venyson roasted – Roast Venison
  • Chekenes Roasted – Roast Chickens
  • Rabettes Roasted – Roast Rabbits
  • Partrich Roasted – Roast Partridge
  • Peions roasted – Roast Pigeons
  • Quailes roasted – Roast Quail
  • Larkes roasted – Roasted Larks
  • Payne puff – Pan Puff
  • A dissh of Gely – A Dish Of Jelly
  • Longe Frutours – Long Fritters
  • And a sotelte – And A Subtlety